J Class
Portsmouth Naval Dockyard, England
6 November 1915
25 March 1919
12 July 1922
Dimensions & Displacement
  • 1820 tons (submerged)
  • 1210 tons (surfaced)
Length 275 feet 6 1/8th inches
Beam 23 feet 1 1/4 inches
Draught 16 feet
  • 9.5 knots (submerged)
  • 19.5 knots (surfaced)
Range 4000 miles at 12 knots
Crew 5 officers, 40 sailors
  • Three shafts
  • Surfaced - 3 x 12 cylinder diesel engines
  • Submerged - 2 x battery driven electric motors
  • 1350 (submerged)
  • 3600 (surfaced)
Guns 1 x 4-inch gun
Torpedoes 6 x 18-inch torpedo tubes - 4 bow, 2 beam

Towards the end of 1914, early in World War I, disturbing rumours began to circulate that the newest German submarines were capable of a much higher surface speed than British boats, one report giving their speed at about 22 knots. The rumours were sufficiently strong to force serious consideration of the matter by the Admiralty, and at the same time consideration was given to the idea that submarines should have a high enough surface speed to be able to work with the fleet. The reports concerning the speed of the German submarines proved to be spurious, but the idea of a British submarine with a high surface speed gained ground. The immediate result of this concern was the development of the J Class, which were unique with their three shafts. Originally eight boats were planned but this was reduced to six and then increased to seven. As a result of these changes the boats originally intended to be J7 and J8 were renumbered in April 1915 as J3 and J4 respectively.

HMS J2 commissioned in the Royal Navy on 1 June 1916 under the command of Lieutenant Commander AM Winser RN and was allocated to the 11th Submarine Flotilla based at Blyth, Northumberland. On 31 July 1916 J2 departed Portsmouth for Blyth.

In June 1917 it was decided to conduct a large scale operation using both destroyers and submarines to flush out enemy submarines either leaving for patrol or returning to their bases from the Atlantic. Known as Operation BB, it was planned to force enemy submarines to dive through certain areas heavily patrolled by destroyers so that they would be on the surface while passing through adjacent areas patrolled by British submarines. The British submarines employed included J1, J2, J4 and J5. During the ten days, 15 to 24 June, 19 German submarines passed in or out of the North Sea; 12 homeward bound and seven outward bound. There were 26 sightings and 11 attacks made, eight by destroyers and three by submarines. J2 was allocated to an area extending west south west from the Norwegian coast off Stavanger but saw nothing of the enemy.

Conditions in the J Class were understandably cramped as can be seen in the above imagery.

At 07:40 on 7 July 1917, when on the surface in position 58°N, 03°05´E, J2, at this time commanded by Lieutenant VM Cooper RN, sighted an enemy submarine also on the surface at 4500 yards, and fired four torpedoes. A column of black smoke appeared in the vicinity of the enemy's conning tower, the enemy remained in sight for a few seconds and then disappeared. No explosion was heard on J2's bridge or in the torpedo room though one was heard in the engine room. At the time a hit was not allowed, though U-99, which according to German records was in the area at that time, did not return from patrol.

On 2 August 1917, at about 08:00, J2 was on the surface proceeding to her patrol area at 15 knots when she sighted some ships. The submarine dived and the Commanding Officer commenced an attack. The weather was perfect and the sea a glassy calm. However, on discovering that the ships were British the attack was broken off and the Commanding Officer decided to bottom in 125 feet until they were clear. Even so, the destroyers gained contact and attacked with depth charges, several attacks were quite close and some damage was done. The submarine remained stationary and silent on the bottom and by 15:30 the surface ships had lost contact and gone away. J2 surfaced and resumed her patrol.

In 1918 J2 was sent to Liverpool to refit, and was there when the Armistice was signed.

Following the conclusion of hostilities in World War I, the Admiralty in 1918 presented the six remaining boats of the J Class to the Australian Government - J6 had been sunk in error in 1918 by a British ship. All the submarines commissioned into the Royal Australian Navy at Portsmouth on 25 March 1919, as tenders to the submarine depot ship HMAS Platypus, J7 being the senior boat. The Commanding Officer of J2 was Lieutenant Claud B Barry DSO, RN.

The beam tubes were removed from all six J Class submarines before they sailed for Australia. The tubes were despatched separately to Garden Island. The reasons given for the removal were that the beam tubes were not a success and that increased accommodation was required.

On 9 April 1919 Platypus and the submarines, escorted by the light cruiser HMAS Sydney, sailed from Portsmouth for Australia, their first two ports of call being Gibraltar and Valetta.

On the night of 28 April, the night before the vessels arrived at Port Said, J3's starboard main engine shaft snapped. Thus handicapped she could not keep up with the others and consequently on departure for Aden on 30 April, J3 was in tow of Sydney.

J2 on passage to Australia. Note the chain towing cable visible on her casing and the absence of her 3-inch gun. J2 was fitted with a 4-inch gun during a refit at Cockatoo Island following her arrival in Sydney.

The vessels arrived at Aden on 5 May. On the same day the light cruiser HMAS Brisbane, which had left Portsmouth on 17 April, also arrived. On 7 May all the vessels sailed for Colombo. Brisbane took over the tow of J3 while Sydney took J5 in tow as that boat had also developed engine trouble. Three days after arrival at Colombo on 15 May, Brisbane sailed with J5 in tow, taking her all the way to Sydney, where they arrived on 27 June.

HMA Submarine J2 and her sisters alongside HMAS Platypus in Aden.

J3 was taken in hand at Colombo for repairs. On 31 May Sydney, J1, J2, J4 and J7 sailed for Singapore, followed on 2 June by Platypus and J3. The vessels were reunited at Singapore from where all except Sydney sailed on 18 June. Sydney sailed for Australia a few days later but did not rejoin the other vessels. On 29 June Platypus and the five submarines arrived at Thursday Island, although J7 was three hours late because of trouble with her engine lubricating system. The last call before Sydney was Brisbane, Sydney being reached on 15 July.

J2 on Port Phillip Bay, Victoria. Note the location of her 4-inch gun at the forward end of the conning tower. (Allan C Green, State Library of Victoria)

Having arrived in poor condition, the submarines were taken in hand at Garden Island Dockyard for refitting. After her refit was completed J2, in company with J5, sailed on 3 May 1920 for the submarine base at Geelong, Victoria.

After uneventful service, little of which was spent at sea, J2 and her five sisters paid off into Reserve at Westernport on 12 July 1922. The boats had become victims of the worsening economic conditions of the time, coupled with their high cost of maintenance.

On 26 February 1924 J2 was sold to the Melbourne Salvage Syndicate. The hull was sunk three miles off Barwon Heads on 1 June 1926.

A scarce example of a J2 cap ribbon now held in the collection of the Australian War Memorial Canberra.
Wheel of J2
A large, wooden helm attributed to J2 and now on display in the HMAS Castlemaine Museum ship, Williamstown, Victoria

Further reading

  • 'Safe to Dive: Submarines at Cockatoo Island, 1914-1991' by John C Jeremy - published by Australian Government: Sydney Harbour Federation Trust, 2005.
  • 'Australian submarines: A History' by Michael WD White - published by AGPS Press, 1992.